When you open a website, do you stop and think how efficient and good-looking it seems? Behind the operation of a website is a programming language, which gives instructions to execute background processes and display graphics, text, videos, and other elements through a browser.
Generally speaking, there are two types of programmin language. One is for front-end development, and the other is for back-end development.
The front-end programming languages are responsible for what you see in the browser, while the back-end programming languages handle operations related to the server, which are not visible to users. In the process of creating a website, both front-end and back-end programming languages are necessary.
So which programming language is best for web development? Let’s find out.
Each front-end language for web development is responsible for browsers’ different aspects. For example, some languages enable text (words), others activate colors and spacing, while the rest activate interactive graphics.
Three of the most common front-end programming languages are listed below
It is crucial in implementing elements such as interactive maps, timely content updates, scrolling video jukeboxes, and animated 2D/3D graphics. It helps animate images, control multi-media display, update content, and perform other interactive functions.
Comparison Table jQuery, Vue.JS, and React.JS:
|Basis of comparison||jQuery||Vue.JS||React.JS|
|License||Has MIT license||Has MIT license||Has MIT license|
|Development||Developed by J Resig||Developed by Evan You||Developed by Facebook|
|Component||It has an interactive UI builder||Has a template component builder||It has a JSX component format|
|Architecture||Utilizes API to manipulate CSS, HTML, and DOM||Its architecture is adaptive for complex features||Supports several state-management libraries for complex features|
|Open-source||Open-source||Free and open-source||Free and open-source|
|Features||For themes, widgets, effects, and UI interactions||For developing web applications||For developing single-page applications and mobile apps|
|Released||Released in 2006||Released in 2014||Released in 2013|
|Community||Developed by an individual author||Developed by a particular author||Community-driven and Facebook-developed|
|CSS||Creates CSS and inserts it in DOM||Creates CSS code inside JS||Includes a script file in JS or imports components|
What Can Be Achieved by Typescript
- Inclusion of Script Types: It comes with types to help developers control function parameters and other variables better. Thus, the code is much easier to understand.
- IDE Support: TypeScript supports Integrated Development Environments (IDE) by providing information about types that make editors and IDEs more practical. It also has additional features like autocompletion and code navigation, making IDE support more practicable.
Drawbacks of Typescript
Despite its many merits, Typescript also has some disadvantages owing to the defects introduced by its creators. The following are the reasons why Typescript is not that good:
- Creating a False Sense of Security: Even though Typescript can check types and issue a warning when something is wrong with the code, it doesn’t always provide foolproof code. If some errors slip through undetected, they will manifest when users start interacting with the web pages.
- Requires Compilation: One of the most significant disadvantages of Typescript is that it may require compilation, which is an additional build step.
Typescript for Writing Media Queries
One of the most critical uses of Typescript is writing media queries in a type-safe way. One of the platforms where you can get numerous open-source media queries using Typescript is GitHub. Examples include Flex-Layout, Styled Breakpoints, React Media Match, and Vue Media Loader. You can use the Typescript media queries to display photos, graphics, videos, and other media elements on web pages.
Resources to Learn Typescript
Learning TypeScript doesn’t require you to enroll for a computer science degree. With the many available online resources, you can learn the programming language from scratch and become an expert in no time.
The following are some of the available online resources where you can learn Typescript:
- Understanding Typescript – 2021 Edition
- Udemy’s Typescript: The Complete Developer’s Guide (2021)
- Udemy’s Typescript for Professionals
- Typescript Masterclass & Free E-Book
- Pluralsight’s Typescript Fundamentals
- Introduction to Typescript Development
- Codecademy’s Learn TypeScript
- The Beginner’s Guide to Typescript
3. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
After HMTL, CSS is the second primary language for web developers. CSS or cascading style sheets are essential in specifying your web pages’ fonts, style, color, and layout. It builds on the foundation laid by HTML to give you a good-looking web page.
What Is CSS?
CSS is cascading style sheets, a programming language that makes a website more appealing than just plain, uninspiring text pieces. It determines the layout, aesthetics, and visual structure of a web page. While HTML is a markup language, CSS is a style sheet language. In short, CSS is like the body style and paint job of a car, working together with the engine or HTML to create a functional unit. Thus, CSS makes websites more appealing to the eye and easier to navigate. It is responsible for format, layout, color, and other aesthetic elements of web design.
The following are the benefits of CSS:
- Faster Page Speed: The use of more code on a web page tends to slow it down. With CSS, you can use less code by applying one CSS code to all occurrences of a specific tag in an HTML document.
- Better UX: One of the most apparent benefits of CSS is how it makes web pages appealing to the eye. It places text and buttons in logical places, organizes them well, and improves the user experience.
- Quicker Development Turnaround: Using CSS, it is possible to apply specific styles and formatting rules to multiple pages with a single string of code. Therefore, one can replicate a single cascading style sheet across several web pages of the same website. A good example is writing CSS rules for one sales page to apply to all similar pages.
- Easy Changes in Format: With CSS, it’s hugely easier to change the format of a set of pages. Instead of fixing every page, all you need is to edit the concerned CSS stylesheet, and the changes will appear on all the related pages of the website.
- Multi-Device Compatibility: It’s increasingly necessary to make web pages more responsive. That’s because of the growing number of users who access the internet using mobile devices. Working together with HTML, CSS makes web pages responsive across all devices.
What Is a CSS Processor?
A CSS processor is a scripting language that extends the default CSS capabilities, enabling developers to use logic in mathematical operations, functions, mixins, inheritance, nesting, and variables. Their work is to simplify the automation of repetitive tasks, create reusable code snippets, reduce code bloat and the number of errors, and ensure backward compatibility.
CSS processors usually have a unique syntax for compiling into regular CSS for browsers to render it on the client’s side quickly.
The following are the most common CSS processors:
1. Sass: Syntactically Awesome Style Sheet
SAA was released in 2006, making it the oldest CSS processor on the market. It is a templating language that adds dynamic features to CSS by allowing front-end web developers to use computational logic, if/else statements, each/for/while loops, and variables in CSS code. Even though written in Ruby, Sass relies on the LibSass library for parsing Sass in C, PHP, and Node programming languages.
Sass helps developers store values using values and reuse them throughout the code. Sass variables can be used locally and globally by having a defined scope, making them versatile. The @exrend rule helps create different design elements with similar characteristics and nesting, a feature that improves code readability. Sass also contains built-in functions for converting and mixing colors, performing mathematical calculations, manipulating strings, and other dynamic functionalities.
2. LESS (Leaner Style Sheets)
LESS mixins enable the reuse of related style rules, such as font color, throughout the code. It has several built-in functions for manipulating colors, gradients, images, units, dimensions, and other characteristics.
Tailwind is a plugin that serves as a CSS framework, not an Ant Design or Bootstrap. It provides low-level utility for building custom designs using HTML as a utility-first framework. Therefore, it’s different from other frameworks that require you to stick to their components.
Apart from its significant differences from other frameworks, Tailwind provides several benefits, including fast development speed. Its tools make it possible to build an entire website using HTML without requiring writing custom CSS. Besides, it’s super-customizable, making it possible to avoid using the default configuration. It generates its utilities with responsive versions to create any web application that looks nice on smartphones, tablets, and desktops.
|Errors||It can report errors in syntax||Reports and explains the location of errors||Detects CSS errors|
|Functions||Enables the creation of functions||Utilizes pre-defined functions in HTML||It comes pre-installed with functions|
|Mixins||For creating styles for use or reuse anywhere in the style sheet||Allows the use and nesting of mixins||It doesn’t work with CSS mixins|
|Documentation||Documentation focuses on knowledge base and setup||Documentation has more appealing visuals||Documentation focuses on building different in-page components|
Here is a detailed article on top css methodologies.
Back-end Programming Language
Backend web development refers to the server-side of things. Therefore, back-end programming languages work on the server side.
The following are the best programming languages for back-end web development:
CMS or content management system is software that enables the users of a website to create, publish, edit, store, and collaborate on digital content. It helps in web content management (WCM) and enterprise content management (ECM). It provides a more straightforward user interface to create, publish, and edit content without writing code from scratch.
A CMS comprises the CMA (content management application) and CDA (content delivery application). The CMA is for creating, designing, modifying, and removing content from a website without knowledge of HTML. On the other hand, the CDA provides back-end support for managing and delivering content once a user creates it. A CMS is beneficial for several reasons, including the following:
- It doesn’t require coding knowledge
- Enabling easy collaboration
- Easy to allocate user roles and permissions
- Built-in SEO features and extensions
- Security features and extensions
- Features predesigned templates
The following are the most popular CMSs on the market today:
- WordPress: WordPress is a popular CMS for freelancers and small businesses. It features the Gutenberg editor, making it easy to build a website and customize it using thousands of themes and plugins.
- Drupal: As one of the largest CMSs on the market, Drupal is suitable for government and large corporations. Developers need some training in web development to use this platform. It has many revolutionary features, thousands of modules, and numerous free themes.
- Shopify: Shopify is a CMS that also works like an e-commerce platform. It features an out-of-the-box page editor for creating content, the title, and basic SEO. Since 2016, web developers can create admin-editable custom interfaces and preview updates in real-time before publishing.
|Pricing||It can be available free of charge||It may not cost anything||It costs money to maintain|
|Features||Built-in and customizable tools||built-in and customizable tools||Built-in tools for online selling|
|Design and customization||The easiest CMS to use||May require knowledge of coding and web design||Easy to use to create websites|
|Customer support||It has a support section on its website||Provides plenty of support for those who need it||Provides support via social media and email|
|Apps and addons||Provides thousands of addons||Provides many apps and addons||Offer a lot of apps and addons|
|Open-source||It has an open-source version||An open-source platform||Not open-source|
PHP or Hypertext Processor is a programming language created in 1994 for web development. It is an open-source server-side scripting language that does not require a compiler. It can run on almost all major operating systems, including Windows, macOS, Linux, Unix, etc. PHP comes with several enriching features such as cross-platform compatibility, support for MySQL, SQLite and other standard databases, and is easy to learn. It utilizes numerous hush functions to encrypt user data remain a very secure server-side programming language.
Beginners are better off starting with PHP for back-end development before advancing to its other functionalities. Several PHP frameworks for back-end web development include Symfony, Codelgniter, and Laravel. Some of the most popular PHP websites include Flickr, WordPress, and MailChimp.
Python is a back-end web development language that has gained popularity due to its compatibility with Data Science, the Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning, and other advanced technologies. As a back-end web development language, its reliability has seen Google start relying on it. Google utilizes it together with two different languages C++ and Java.
It is excellent for web development since several standard libraries make the developers’ work more accessible and more efficient. Besides, it has additional features like portability, GUI Programming support, easier cross-language integration, and better code readability, making it one of the most preferred languages for web developers.
The Python frameworks for web development include Pyramid, Flask, Django, etc. Apart from Google, several websites like Pinterest, Spotify, Instacart, etc., utilize Python as their back-end language for web development.
Ruby is an interpreted general-purpose programming language designed to support program paradigms such as object-oriented, functional, and procedural programming. It is one of the most widely used programming languages for web development worldwide. Ruby is excellent for beginners who’re just getting started with back-end web development since it’s easier to learn.
It works the same way as Python, focusing on increasing a developer’s productivity and faster web development. Ruby is based on other programming languages such as Ada, Eiffel, Lisp, Perl, etc. and supports major operating systems including Windows, Linux, Max, etc. Some of its prominent features include:
- Automatic garbage collection
- Dynamic typing
- Duck typing
- Custom dispatch behavior
- Large standard library
- Centralized package management via RubyGems
- Flexibility and scalability
Ruby has several frameworks for back-end web development, including Grape, Sinatra, Ruby on Rails, etc. some of the popular websites using Ruby are SlideShare, Shopify, and Airbnb.
Golang is one of the top five most loved programming languages for web developers worldwide. It is designed at Google and is a statistically-typed programming language with syntax comparable to the C language. Golang makes it possible to build scalable, secure web applications efficiently.
Golang provides outstanding support for multithreading and automatic memory management via its garbage collection feature. It has many other features, including the following:
- Easy to learn
- Backed by google
- Readable code
- Package management
- Compiled language
- Concurrency support
- Powerful standard library
Popular Golang frameworks for back-end web development include revel, echo, bingo, etc. The language is used on some of the most popular websites, including Dailymotion, SoundCloud, and Dropbox.
The best programming language for web development isn’t just one tool but consists of several tools working together. That’s because a website needs both back-end and front-end code. The most important considerations include the project requirements, performance, reliability, and learning curve when choosing a programming language. Some programming languages are more popular, making learning, using, and getting support easier. Also important is the ability of a programming language to accommodate the latest tech features.